The Hyperrealistic Sculptures of Sam Jinks, Patricia Piccinini, Choi Xooang and Ting-Tong Chang

Kneeling Woman (2015) by Sam Jinks
Sam Jinks; Kneeling Woman (2015, silicone, pigment, resin and human hair); Art Central 2016 (Gallery: Marc Straus)

At the recent Art Basel and Art Central exhibitions in Hong Kong, the hyperrealistic sculptures of Sam Jinks. Patricia Piccinini, Choi Xooang and Ting-Tong Chang captured a lot of attention. The artists share a fascination with the human form and with the ability to mimic and distort that form. At first sight, the sculptures tend to be unsettling (or even creepy!), as they are all operating deep within the uncanny valley; however, what does each artist’s work reveal about the human condition?


1. Kneeling Woman & Babies and Frogs by Sam Jinks

Kneeling Woman (2015) by Sam Jinks
Sam Jinks; Kneeling Woman (2015, silicone, pigment, resin and human hair); Art Central 2016 (Gallery: Marc Straus)
Artist: Sam Jinks; Title: Kneeling Woman (2015); Art Central 2016 (Gallery: Marc Straus); Silicone, pigment, resin and human hair; Photo by longzijun
Sam Jinks; Kneeling Woman

Of the artwork featured this page, the sculptures of Australian artist Sam Jinks are the most faithful to the human form. Viewing his sculptures is like looking at living people suspended in time, with all their imperfections— wrinkles and folds of flesh, ribs pressing out against the skin, the line of bumps tracing the path of vertebrae, age spots and other skin discolorations, the webs of lines on the palms and soles—laid bare. His works celebrate the beauty of the human form despite, or perhaps because of its vulnerability, imperfection and transience.

Sometimes he adds additional elements to his sculptures, like the frogs in Babies and Frogs. Why frogs? Perhaps they call to mind the temporary “amphibious” nature of new born babies. Before birth, humans live in a liquid environment drawing nutrition and oxygen from the amniotic fluid that envelops them in the womb.

Babies and Frogs by Sam Jinks
Sam Jinks; Babies and Frogs (2015, Silicone, pigment, resin and human hair); Art Central 2016 (Gallery: Marc Straus)
Babies and Frogs (Detail) by Sam Jinks
Sam Jinks; Babies and Frogs

Mini-bio: Australian artist Sam Jinks was born in 1973 in Bendigo Victoria and is now based in Melbourne He worked in as a creature designer in the film industry before devoting his energies full-time to his own art. He is know for works like those featured on this page: extremely realistic sculptures of people.

More on Sam Jinks
Artist’s Website:

 2. The Rookie by Patricia Piccinini

Artist: Patricia Piccinini; Title: The Rookie (2015); Art Basel Hong Kong 2016 (Gallery: Tolarno Galleries); Fibreglass, silicone, hair; Photo by longzijun
Patricia Piccinini; The Rookie (2015, fibreglass, silicone, hair); Art Basel Hong Kong 2016 (Tolarno Galleries)

Like many of Australian artist Patricia Piccinini’s lifelike sculptures, the Rookie, explores the possibilities and perils of bio-technology and the capabilities of human love and acceptance.

Bio-technology offers the tools to manipulate, mutate and mold the human form, but how will we, as a society and as individuals, view the new humans? The title of the work, the Rookie, not only implies something new—perhaps a prototype—but it also implies the beginning. If this is the creature in its rookie form, what has it been designed to do?

The infant creature, looking like hybrid of a human, hedgehog and tortoise, is at once grotesque and adorable. Lying vulnerable and immobile on its back and staring up with moist, pleading eyes, he/she/it is seemingly searching for acceptance and love. Could you truly love such a ‘thing’ and could you take the responsibility to raise it? What kind of life would it live?

The Rookie by Patricia Piccinini
Patricia Piccinini; The Rookie
The Rookie by Patricia Piccinini
Patricia Piccinini; The Rookie

Australian artist Patricia Piccinini was born in Freetown, Sierra Leone in 1965 and studied at Australian National University (Economic History) and Victorian College of the Arts (Painting). She works with a variety of media—including painting, video, sound, installation and sculpture— but is best known for her work with realistic sculptures of humanoid creatures. in 2016, she worked with Australia’s Transport Accident Commission to produce a ‘Graham’, an interactive lifelike sculpture meant to demonstrate the vulnerability of the human body.

More on Patricia Piccinini
Artist’s Website:

In The Flesh | Patricia Piccinini (video by the National Gallery)

3. Dreamers (Green) by Choi Xooang (최수앙)

Dreamers (Green) by Choi Xooang
Choi Xooang; Title: Dreamers (Green) (2015, oil on resin mixed with pigments, wire); Art Central 2016 (Gallery: Art Seasons)
Dreamers (Green) by Choi Xooang
Choi Xooang; Dreamers (Green)

Dreamers (Green) is part of a series of sculptures by Korean artist Choi Xooang (최수앙) that feature hyperrealistic human figures with towering outgrowths resembling forests or coral sprouting from their heads.

My first impression of this sculpture was of a kind of tranquil sadness. Therefore, when doing research for this article, I was surprised to find that the artist’s sculptures tend to be nightmarish, surrealistic visions of the human form: disembodied hands; disembodied heads; armless humanoid creatures with rough white skin who are missing mouths, eyes or heads; a human-goose hybrid; a baby body with an adult head. Describing Choi Xooang’s’s work, Caro writes:

To Choi, the body is a vessel through which we perceive and express ourselves, and one that provides him with an ideal medium to explore the possibilities of the human condition. What might seem brutal at first glance is actually Choi’s method of dealing with life’s wounds and scars, and even in his most grotesque work, his figures seem to evoke our awe and sympathy.

Xooang Choi’s New Hyperrealistic Figures Are Dreamy and Unsettling

Other sculptures in this Dreamers series feature lone subjects; they bear expressions of despair and sit slumped over. As the people are labelled as dreamers, does this mean the outgrowths represents their dreams? Do our beautiful hopes and aspirations sometimes become a kind of burden? In Dreamers (Green), the figures support and comfort each other. They don’t look happy, but they don’t look despairing either. Perhaps the burden of dreams is easier to handle if people can support one another.

I wonder whether the two figures are trapped by the dream they share. If so, what will happen if they pull themselves away from each other?

Dreamers (Green) by Choi Xooang
Choi Xooang; Dreamers (Green)

Mini-bio: Korean artist Choi Xooang was born in Seoul and studied sculpture at the Seoul National University. He is know for his figurative sculptures of people in which specific body parts have been modified, re-scaled, moved, removed and/or isolated.

More on Choi Xooang
Artist’s instagram:
Article by Yoewool Kang: An Interview with Xooang Choi
Article by Nastia Voynovskaya: Recent, Nightmarishly Hyperreal Sculptures by Choi Xooang

4. Robinson by Ting-Tong Chang

Robinson by Ting-Tong Chang
Ting-Tong Chang; Robinson (2015, aluminium, latex, electronic components); Art Central 2016 (Christine Park Gallery)

In his work, Ting-Tong Chang, a Taiwanese London-based artist, frequently explores ideas related to machines—what their uses may be, how they function and how they may malfunction—and identity. This animatronic sculpture, Robinson, deals with both themes. Although the creature is human-like in appearance and is capable of a wide range of expressions, it is still just a machine—an assemblage of circuitry and gears, latex and aluminum.

The creation of Robinson was inspired by humanoid automata, the mechanical devices that wowed nobility during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. These were clockwork machines that looked like humans (or in some instances animals) and were constructed to perform a specific task, such as perform music, write or draw (see the video at the end of this section for an example of a musical automaton). Automata, which have existed since ancient times; are byproducts of our fascination with blurring the boundaries between life and machine.

Robinson does have an audio narration that describes his life and thoughts; however, that was not playing at the Art Basel exhibit. You can hear it in the following Vimeo video:

Mini-bio: Ting-tong Chang was born in Taiwan and studied fine art at Goldsmiths, University of London. he is now based in London. His body of work is varied, consisting of paintings, drawings, sculptures and performance art and large-scale multimedia installations.

More on Ting-Tong Chang
Artist’s Website:

Video on an automatons
Joueuse de Tympanon: Example of an 18th Century Automaton

Go Further

This section includes links to online photo galleries and websites, discussion questions and an art challenge.


To view the images at a higher resolution (e.g., 2048 x 1365), you can go to the albums at:

Further Reading

To see lifelike sculptures by other artists, check out this article on the world’s most prominent hyper-realist sculptors:
Besides featuring Patricia Piccinini, the article also introduces the work of Ron Mueck, Evan Penny, Marc Sijan, Jamie Salmon, Maurizio Cattelan, Carole Feuerman, and Adam Beane)

Three Questions

  1. Which of the hyperrealistic structures did you like the best? Why?
  2. Why are people fascinated with artificial things that look very real?
  3. In some video games and computer generated animations, the characters are quite lifelike but not exactly lifelike. Such characters are said to be in the ‘uncanny valley’ between ‘real’ and ‘unreal’ and that watching those character onscreen can give people an uncomfortable feeling. Have you ever experienced this feeling? When?

Art Challenge

Draw, sketch, paint or sculpt a human-creature hybrid (e.g, like Patricia Piccinini’s The Rookie). Give it a name. Give it a backstory.

~ text and photos by longzijun


Return to Artjouer’s Gallery of Artists

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s